Database Management Basics

Database management is a system for managing information that aids an organization’s business operations. It involves storing data and distribution to users and application programs and then modifying it if necessary, monitoring changes in the data and preventing the data from becoming corrupted by unexpected failures. It is an integral part of the informational infrastructure of a business that supports decision making and corporate growth as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were invented in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They developed into information management systems (IMS), which allowed large amounts data to be stored and retrieved for a variety of purposes. From calculating inventory, to aiding complicated financial accounting functions, and human resource functions.

A database is a set of tables that arrange data according to a particular schema, such as one-to many relationships. It uses primary keys to identify records and allows cross-references between tables. Each table has a variety of fields, referred to as attributes, which provide information about the data entities. Relational models, developed by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM as a database, are the most used database type currently. This design is based on normalizing data to make it easier to use. It also makes it simpler to update data since it eliminates the need to modify various databases.

Most DBMSs can accommodate multiple database types by providing different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level deals with costs, scalability, and other operational concerns, such as the design of the database’s physical storage. The external level is how the database is represented in user interfaces and other applications. It could comprise a combination of different external views (based on the different data models) and could also include virtual tables that are created from data that is generic to enhance performance.